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Khanapur (formerly known as Bidi). -Sub-division of Belgaum
District, Bombay Presidency. The most southern Sub-division of the
District, known as Bidi till 1868-69, in which year the head-quarters
was transferred from Bidi to Khanapur, and the name of the Subdivision
changed. It contains 219 villages, with an area of 632
square miles; population (1872) 78,875, (1881) 79,264, or 125 persons
per square mile; land revenue, £11,308. Of the 632 square miles,
6267 had been surveyed in detail in 1882 ; 86 square miles were
occupied by the lands of alienated villages. The remainder contains
156,669 acres of arable land, 1796 acres of uncultivable land, 1690
acres of grass, 174,534 acres of forests, and 12,664 acres of village
sites, roads, rivers, and streams. Of the total, 36,400 acres are
alienated lands in Government villages. The south and south-west
of Khanapur is crowded with hills and dense forest, the people are few
and unsettled, and, except in patches, tillage disappears. In the northwest
the hills are especially lofty. In the centre, north-east, and east,
the country is an open, well-tilled black soil plain, with many rich and
populous villages. The climate is temperate and healthy during the
hot months, feverish in the cold season, and sickly during the southwest
rains. At Khanapur town, during the ten years ending in 1882,
the rainfall averaged 63 inches. In 1881-82, of 94,727 acres held for
tillage, 36,143 acres were fallow or under grass. Of the remaining
58,584 acres, 2706 were twice cropped. Of the 61,290 acres under
tillage, grain occupied 52,231 acres; pulse, 5722; oil-seeds, 2184; fibres,
64; and miscellaneous crops, 999. About 20 miles of the \V, *
Deccan line of the Southern Marathd Railway pass from north to
through the centre of the Sub-division, and about 21 miles of the
Bellary-Marmagoa Railway along the southern boundary. In
there were 15 schools in the Sub-division.
Khanapur --- Town in the Khanapur Sub-division of Belgaum District, Bombay presidency. Situated in lat 15 ?27' N., and long 74 ? 34' E., on the malprabha river, about 16 miles south of Belgaum town. Head-quarters of the sub-division with a population of 3516 in 1872, and of 4016 in 1881. About 1720, Khanapur was a large enterpot for Goa merchants with drugs, China goods,metals and spices; they were met here by merchants from Hubli, Nargund, and Nawalgund with cloth, cotton and saltpeter. This trade was destroyed about 1810 by the Kittur Desai, who removed it to Nandgad, seven miles south-east of Khanapur. Malla Sarja Desai of Kittur in 1809 to commemorate the grant to him of the title of Prataprao by Peshwa Bajirav (1796-1818) built a fort called Pratapgad near Nandgad. The Desai is said to have encouraged merchants to settle here by drawing them from Khanapur. The whole manufacturing population of Khanapur was taken by persuasion and force and nine years' exemption from taxes was granted to new settlers. Besides the revenue and police offices of the Sub-Division, the town contains a school, Post -office, rest-house, and Portuguese mission with a chapel. It is a station on the West Deccan line of the Southern Maratha Railway.
In May 1887 proposals were submitted for the revision of the first settlement in the subdivision of Khanapur,nearly corresponding with the old Taluka of Bidi. This revision applies to 230 villages, of which six have been transferred to Dharwar; 224 belong to the Government , and sixteen are alienated.
The great bulk of the villages were first settled in 1854-55 and 1855-56. The partial re-measurement and re-classification system has been adopted, and the former shows a difference of only 3 percent., in favour of the new survey. Khanapur is in the south-west of the Collectorate. It is bounded on the north by the subdivision of Belgaum, on the east by Sampgaon and Dharwar, om the south bye the district of North Kanara, and on the west by territories of Goa and Savantvadi State.
In the south and south-west it is very hilly and covered with dense forests, where the population is scanty and unsettled, and tillage, except in patches, disappears. In the centre, north-east and east along the valley of the malprabha the country is an open, well -tilled, black soil plain, with many rich and populous villages, and in the north-west there are lofty hills, clothed with evergreen brushwood. The rainfall is heavy and certain, and very suitable for rice, which is the staple crop, and occupies nearly half the cultivated area; Javari and other grains are also successfully raised; nearly the whole of the latter is grown in the eastern villages, there being hardly any dry-crop tillage in the south and west.
There is, as in Belgaum, a large extent of land under grass, to provide pasturage for the large stock of cattle required in a district where rice is so much grown. In the Ghat villages the rice lands grow a second crop in the hot weather, but the area of garden land is insignificant. Coffee is raised within the villages sites, and in evergreen jungle numbers where the rainfall is sufficient. At the time of the first settlement there were no made roads; at present, in addition to the Southern Mahratta Railway from Bellary to the sea-coast of Goa, which joins the West Deccan line from Puna and Belgaum at Londa, the two together having four stations within the limits of the subdivision, there are several provincial as well as local fund roads so that the ryots have every facility for the disposal of their produce.
The six villages in the south-east corner transferred to Dharvar have the railway station of Alnavar for a market, while for the remainder Nandgad, seven miles south-east of Khanapur, is the chief mart, and the railway stations at Khanapur, Londa, and Nagargali, with other smaller markets, are conveniently situated within, and other larger ones without the limits of Khanapur are easily accessible. The population is almost entirely agricultural, ther being in the way of manufactures only a few cotton looms in a small number of villages, and the preparation of rice called Churamuri, which is exported to long distances.
The comparative statistics of population, &c., show a marked improvement under every item but that of cattle other than those used for agriculture, the increase in the number of carts, from 1,017 to 3,148, being specially noteworthy. The decrease in "other" cattle may be accounted for, as elsewhere, by the constraction of the pasturage area. Prices of agricultural produce have advanced greatly. Contrasting the twelve years from 1874-75 with the first ten years of the settlement, from 1854-55 to 1868-64, the increase in the price of Javari has been over 42 percent., and in that rice 63 �, and there is every reason to believe that the opening of the railways will prevent a recurrence of low prices.
The revenue history of the subdivision is one of steadily increasing prosperity. A sudden increase in cultivation followed the introduction of the survey rates, more specially marked in the jungly portion in the south and west. In this the area of tillage rose at once from 11,395 to 20,058 acres, and the rise continued till 1861-62, when it reached its highest point. Some 3,500 acres of poor land were then abandoned, but for the last twenty cultivation and revenue have remained at about the same level. In the six villages transferred to Dharvar there are no outstanding balances, and no remissions have been required for the last thirty years. In the last three years in the 224 villages, out of 592 cases in which notices for the sale of occupancy rights have been issued on account of non-payment of revenue is collected without difficulty.
At the first settlement the villages were divided for maximum dry-crop rates into six groups, of which the highest was in the north east corner and the lowest near the Ghats, ranging from Re. 1 4a. to 8a.; rice rates were from Rs. 8 to Rs. 4 In the revision the rice rates remain the same, and dry crop range from Re.1 8a. to half a rupee. There are still six groups fro dry-crop rates falling from east to west as the climate becomes unsuited for that kind of tillage, and with due reference to market facilities. In the seventy-eight villages of the fifth and sixth groups these rates remain as at present. These two groups show a decrease in population and houses, which is attributed to the endeavour that has been made to put a stop to kumri, or ash-manure cultivation, the question relating to which is being re-considered. Notwithstanding this decrease, the number of agricultural cattle and carts in these two groups have been considerably augmented.
The ten acres of garden land at the old survey have now increased to 123, the old average of Re.1 9a.7p rising to Re.1 15a 3p . The increase of Rs.27,311 has arisen chiefly in the first three groups of villages; in the others, situated in the wild country in the south and west, equal progress was naturally unattainable. The enhancement in some of the villages went beyond the limits laid down by Government in 1874, but was sanctioned as it was due to assessment for the first time of water advantages, which had not been taken into proper account at the first settlement. Both in the newly-formed rice lands and those for which new water facilities had been provided, no enhancement of rates had been allowed. Land under old wells had its rates reduced to within the maximum dry crop rates of the several groups, and in order that the enhancements beyond the prescribed limits might not fall too heavily on the villagers, these were directed to be levied by degrees, as directed in the case of Sampgaon mentioned above.
It will be seen that there are several of the subdivisions of this collectorate which have still to come under revision, from the first settlement guaranteed for thirty years not having expired. The general result of the revision cannot, accordingly, be given for the whole collectorate. There can be no doubt, however, that the remaining subdivisions will show equally favourable results with those already revised.
THE IMPERIAL GAZETTEER OF INDIA.
Author : W.W.Hunter,C.S.I., C.I.E., L.L.D.,
Director-General of Statistics to the Government of India.
Published by : Truber & Co., London 1886
THE LAND REVENUE OF BOMBAY.
Author : Alexander Rogers ( Bombay Civil Services Retired 1892 )
Published By : W.H Allen & Co., Limited London 1892
HAND BOOK OF BOMBAY PRESIDENCY.
Author : Edward B. Eastwick 1880
Published By : John Murray, Albemarle Street, London 1881
Author : B.Lewis Rice, C.I.E., M.R.A.S.
Fellow of the University of Madras . Director of Archeological Researches
late Director of Public Instruction in Mysore and Coorg
Published By : Archibald Constable and Company, London 1897